Technical Market Support

Impact of Milling Techniques on Coke Oven Feed

Technical Market Support » Metallurgical Coal

Published: October 01Project Number: C8057

Get ReportAuthor: Frank Shi, Tom Callcott, Ruth Callcott, Joan Esterle | JKMRC, Callcott Consulting, CSIRO Exploration & Mining

The international export market for Australian coals is dominated by coking coal sales. However, few Australian coking coal producers process their coal domestically to produce direct coke oven feed. Therefore there is little understanding of how best to prepare each coal to achieve optimum coke quality and battery operations at the user end.

Coke quality is controlled by coal properties (rank, ash yield and composition), bulk material properties (size distribution, bulk density and moisture content) and coke oven parameters (oven type, heating rate, coking time, consistency of operation, method of oven loading and quenching). It is also controlled by feed preparation, in particular the best grinding process to achieve an optimum size distribution for coking behaviour.

Currently, coke oven feed is crushed to size specifications of approximately 85% passing 3mm. It is known that some coals require more energy than others to meet this specification, and generally, adjustments to milling configurations are made empirically. The major objective of this project was to develop models for the swing hammer mills under varying machine conditions to assist in the beneficiation of coke oven feeds. It was required that the models be capable of predicting hammer mill products for given feed properties and machine configurations. Alternatively, to achieve a required product from a given feed the models should be able to indicate the machine settings. The outcome of a successful simulation model is the capability to simulate the impact of changing blends or mill configurations to achieve a desired coke oven feed size distribution.

This project combined studies by JKMRC, Callcott Consulting Pty Ltd (CCPL), the CSIRO and BHP Port Kembla Steelworks. The approach of the project was to:

  • Conduct an audit on the industrial hammer mill operation at Port Kembla and collect feed samples for the BJD hammer mill tests;
  • Characterise the laboratory breakage behaviour of coal using the single particle drop weight test developed at the JKMRC. Tests on coal samples from individual lithotypes and the Port Kembla (PK) hammer mill feed were used to generate the breakage functions for JKMRC modelling;
  • Conduct pilot scale hammer mill tests at varying operating conditions;
  • Use the data to develop and calibrate hammer mill models for both the pilot scale BJD and the industrial mill at Port Kembla.

Two models were developed and are presented in this report. One uses the JKMRC approach to energy-based mechanistic modelling (Part I), the other the Callcott mathematical model with a fundamental understanding of hammer mill behaviour (Part II). Spreadsheet versions of both models are available from the authors (Frank Shi, JKMRC and Tom Callcott, Callcott Consulting Pty Ltd).

Joan Esterle - phone 07 3327 4411,
Tom Callcott - phone 02 4968 3408,


Health and safety, productivity and environment initiatives.

Recently Completed Projects

C26070Industrialisation Of Proof Of Concept Wall-Flow DOC + Filter System

The need to protect workers from diesel particulate matter (DPM) had...

C26006Coal Burst Monitoring Technology Using Microseismicity – Microseismic Data Capturing And Documentation

Coal burst is a violent collapse of the coal wall or roof in develop...

C20038Standardised Subsidence Information Management System

As an empirically-based discipline of engineering/science, subsidenc...


Open Cut

Safety, productivity and the right to operate are priorities for open cut mine research.

Recently Completed Projects

C27046Estimation Of True Deformation Vector From Slope Radar Monitoring

Slope deformation radar monitors are now widely used in open cut coa...

C29003Wear Debris Removal From Dragline Commutators

The original aim of this project was to establish a method of removi...

C28037Local Scale Dispersion Modelling To Support ACARP Emission Factors

There remains significant concern in the industry regarding the accu...

Open Cut

Coal Preparation

Maximising throughput and yield while minimising costs and emissions.

Recently Completed Projects

C6046Optimising Coal Fragmentation For Improved Recovery

Uncontrolled fragmentation, in particular that resulting in the gene...

C25019Adaptation Of Coal Grain Analysis To Improve Flotation Yield Estimation

This project involved sampling of full-scale flotation circuits at ...

C27033Comprehensive Flotation Model Using CGA Particle Surface Composition

The aim of this project was to adapt existing particle based flotat...

Coal Preparation

Technical Market Support

Market acceptance and emphasising the advantages of Australian coals.

Recently Completed Projects

C24057Using CGA To Investigate The Links Between Inertinite Fusibility And Coke Structure

Previous projects C16047 and C20008 identified some coals from diffe...

C27036Improved Understanding Of Coke Quality Using 3D Immersive Visualisation And Statistical Characterisation Of Microstructure Properties

This project carried out an explorative study into the use of a 3D v...

C27047Combustion Characteristics Of Australian Export Thermal Coal Using Advanced Imaging Techniques

During pulverised fuel combustion, coal particles are rapidly pyroly...

Technical Market Support

Mine Site Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from the production of coal.

Recently Completed Projects

C26004CFD Modelling Of Reverse Thermal Oxidisers For VAM Abatement - CFD Modelling Of Fixed-Bed RTO Devices

The project is part of a larger multi‐phase program of study a...

C27058Technological Assessment Of A Recycle Reactor For VAM Abatement

Underground coal mining emits high volumes of methane, diluted in ve...

C27008Selective Absorption Of Methane By Ionic Liquids

The connection of a ventilation air methane (VAM) abatement plant di...

Mine Site Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

Low Emission Coal Use

Step-change technologies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Recently Completed Projects

C17060BGasification Of Australian Coals

Four Australian coals were trialled in the Siemens 5 MWth pilot scale ga...

C17060AOxyfuel Technology For Carbon Capture And Storage Critical Clean Coal Technology - Interim Support

The status of oxy-fuel technology for first-generation plant is indicate...

C18007Review Of Underground Coal Gasification

This report consists of a broad review of underground coal gasification,...

Low Emission Coal Use

Mining And The Community

The relationship between mines and the local community.

Recently Completed Projects

C16027Assessing Housing And Labour Market Impacts Of Mining Developments In Bowen Basin Communities

The focus of this ACARP-funded project has been to identify a number...

C22029Understanding And Managing Cumulative Impacts Of Coal Mining And Other Land Uses In Regions With Diversified Economies

The coal industry operates in the context of competing land-uses that sh...

C23016Approval And Planning Assessment Of Black Coal Mines In NSW And Qld: A Review Of Economic Assessment Techniques

This reports on issues surrounding economic assessment and analysis ...

Mining And The Community


National Energy Research,Development & Demonstration Council (NERDDC) reports - pre 1992.

Recently Completed Projects

1609-C1609Self Heating of Spoil Piles from Open Cut Coal Mines

Self Heating of Spoil Piles from Open Cut Coal Mines

1301-C1301Stress Control Methods for Optimised Development...

Stress Control Methods for Optimised Development and Extraction Operations

0033-C1356Commissioned Report: Australian Thermal Coals...

Commissioned Report: Australian Thermal Coals - An Industry Handbook