Coal Preparation                                  reports

Coal Preparation

Maintenance, improved recovery and plant capacity are our key coal preparation strategies. Work is focused on maximising yield, reducing production costs, minimising emissions, reducing water consumption and the use of lower quality water without adversely impacting on process efficiency.

Dewatering (46 Reports)

Advanced Dynamic Control For Paste Thickeners - First Stage For Control Of Complete CHPP’s

Get Report
Author: Götz Bickert, Jie Bao, Ridwan Setiawan and Chee Keong Tan | GBL Process, University of New South Wales

Paste thickeners produce significantly higher solids underflow concentrations than conventional thickeners through higher beds within the thickeners. They have been introduced into the coal preparation industry for coal tailings dewatering. Control of paste thickeners is critical because the ....  read more


Agglomeration of Fine Steaming Coal

Get Report
Author: Keith N Clark | CSIRO Energy Technology

This is a preliminary report following the initial assessment and commissioning of the fine coal balling operation at Newlands mine.  It is part of an ACARP assisted program to determine the potential of balling fine coal using molasses based binders while not using a drying step to ....  read more


Agglomeration to Minimize Moisture and Maximize Yield

Get Report
Author: Daniel Borrow, Jamie Dickinson, Matthew Cole & Kevin Galvin | University of Newcastle

The objective of this project was to determine the potential to effect a reduction in fine coal product moisture using a novel agglomeration technology. Following agglomeration, the final product was subjected to pressure filtration tests at both 1 and 7 bar, and the final moistures ....  read more


Application of Screw Press Filtration to Tailings Dewatering

Get Report
Author: Stuart Whitton, Wilfried Wimmler, Timothy Vangsness | Mechanical Advantage, Ishigaki Oceania, University of Queensland

A pilot scale screw press filter was tested at an operating mine site where it filtered coal tailings containing high levels of kaolin clays. Its performance is compared to that of a recess plate pressure filter that was used to filter the same tailings materials at the same time. During the ....  read more


Belt Press Filter Handbook

Get Report
Author: Darren Mathewson, Daniel Eschebach | Quality Process Solutions

Tailings management is critical to the efficient operation of a modern mine and mineral processing plant. Due to intense scrutiny of the overall environmental impact and water usage of CPPs, obtaining approval for tailings dams has become increasingly difficult, leading to an increase in the ....  read more


Capability for Dewatered Tailings (DT) and Mixed Plant Rejects (MPR) Testing in Support of a Critical State Soil Mechanics Framework for Potential Liquefaction Assessment

Get Report
Author: Jubert Pineda, Kaiwen Ouyang, Olivier Buzzi and Stephen Fityus | The University of Newcastle

Testing of fine coal materials in the unsaturated state, such as dewatered tailings, is inherently complex and requires precise measurement of both pore air and pore water volume changes to accurately evaluate the changing degree of saturation. The project focused on commissioning laboratory ....  read more


Characterisation of Pressure (Hyperbaric) Filter Performance

Get Report
Author: Ben Narbutas & Bob Drummond | QCC Resources

Hyperbaric disc filter technology has been used to dewater fine coal concentrates in Eastern Europe and China for over 30 years. A pilot scale investigation was undertaken in 2016, which examined the suitability of this technology to dewater Australian fine coal flotation concentrates. This ....  read more


Commissioned Report: Establishing Priorities for Coal Dewatering R&D

Get Report
Author: Chris Clarkson, D Proud | Carbon Consulting International

Efficient dewatering of coal is one of the highest priorities in production encountered by coal preparation engineers. The objectives may be to meet product specifications or environmental constraints or to facilitate the handling of coal and tailings. Reduction of fine coal moisture has ....  read more


Control system to improve ultrafine coal tailings dewatering

Get Report
Author: Cuong Nguyen, Anh Nguyen, Ngoc Nguyen, Andrew Doi and Dave Osborne | The University of Queensland

Dewatering of fine coal tailings becomes more and more challenging due to the variation of tailings composition, and the complex surface properties and gelation. Among dewatering methods, solid bowl centrifugation has proven superior owing to an efficient combination between chemical reagents ....  read more


Development of a process for separating and dewatering fine particles

Get Report
Author: Anxiang Yang and Liguang Wang | The University of Queensland

Various beneficiation processes are employed for upgrading Australian raw coals over a broad size range. Among the beneficiation processes widely used in Australian coal preparation plants are dense medium separation and froth flotation. A common feature for these separators is the use of a ....  read more


Dewatering of Ultrafine Coals and Tailings by CentribaricTM Technology - Laboratory Scale Tests

Get Report
Author: Liguang Wang, Jianwei Du, Anh Nguyen | The University of Queensland


This report describes the responses of Australian coals and tailings to the commercialised CentribaricTM dewatering technology at laboratory scale and in batch mode. It provides detailed information on the impact of operating variables and particle size and type on the ....  read more


Dewatering of Ultrafine Coals and Tailings by Centrifugation: Pilot Scale Studies

Get Report
Author: Majid Ejtemaei, Anh Nguyen | The University of Queensland

Dewatering of ultrafine coal and tailings is a big challenge to the coal industry. In this project, the dewatering of ultrafine coal and tailings in the presence of chemicals (anionic and cationic surfactants, and anionic flocculants) were investigated using surface characterisation ....  read more


Dry Beneficiation Using FGX and X-Ray Sorters

Get Report
Author: Glenn Sherritt | A&B Mylec

Conventional dry processing methods engage a single beneficiation device (e.g. FGX, Air Jigs) employing air (and vibration) in place of water or medium, as is typical in wet coal preparation. More contemporary dry sorting methods employ advanced electromagnetic sensors coupled with analysers, ....  read more


Efficient Reagents for Disposal of Coal Tailings: Pilot Scale Studies

Get Report
Author: Ngoc Nguyen and Anh Nguyen | University of Queensland

Sustainable disposal of tailings is a pressing issue in the coal industry. Conventional tailings storage facilities (TSFs) pose a significant risk of catastrophic liquefaction failure. Dry stacking via co-disposal presents a new tailings management strategy in which fine coal tailings are ....  read more


Electrokinetic Dewatering of Ultrafine Coal and Coal Tailings

Get Report
Author: Andy Fourie | University of Western Australia, CSIRO, Curtin University

The processing, transport and management of ultrafine coal tailings often represents major financial and logistical concerns for owners and operators of collieries. The problems almost invariably relate to the volume of water that has to be managed when dealing with the ultrafine tailings. ....  read more


Enhanced Dewatering of CHPP Tailings Through Modification of the Structure of Pre-sedimented Flocs

Get Report
Author: Philip Ofori, Clint McNally and Bruce Firth & Anh Nguyen | CSIRO & University of Queensland

The effective management and disposal of coal preparation process effluents containing colloidal particulate matter, particularly fine tailings with clay minerals are important to the Australian coal industry from both environmental and water recovery perspectives. Tailings management ....  read more


Fundamentals of Fine Coal Dewatering

Get Report
Author: Flourent Bourgeois, W Barton, A Buckley, A McCutcheon, Chris Clarkson | CMTE, C Clarkson & Associates

The aim of this project was to develop a fundamental understanding of coal-water interactions and of the dewatering process that will form the basis for improving the dewatering behaviour of all black coals, not just problem coals.  The objectives of the project were:

  • To
 ....  read more


Horizontal Belt Filter Control

Get Report
Author: Garry France | Callidan Instruments

This project examines the installation of an on-line instrument to measure cake moisture in horizontal bed filters, in real-time. This will allow operators and process engineers to accurately adjust process parameters to meet the desired product moisture. It would also eliminate the ....  read more


Improved Centrifuge Basket Performance

Get Report
Author: Glenn Hart, Michael O'Brien, Bruce Firth | CSIRO

Experimental work at Coppabella by Sedgman suggested that a moisture reduction could be obtained via a reduction in the basket speed with a commensurate increase in basket life.  This finding raised the issue of our lack of understanding of :

  • The importance
 ....  read more


Improved Dewatering in Fine Coal Centrifuges

Get Report
Author: B Johnston, L Stapleton, C Veal, J Donnelly | CSIRO Energy Technology, James C Donnelly and Associates

This report summarises the results from a study aimed at improving the solids capture of scroll centrifuges. The main objective was to assess at pilot and commercial scales, the ....  read more


Improved Handling and Transport of Coal Fines through Integration of Dewatering and Size Enlargement

Get Report
Author: Chris J Veal, BK Johnston, M Attalla | CSIRO Energy Technology

Results of a bench scale, proof-of-concept study aimed at improving the handling, transport and marketability of coal fines are summarised and discussed. The concept involves integration of conventional filtration with size enlargement, by adding a ....  read more


Improving Fine Coal Centrifuge: Stages 2 and 3

Get Report
Author: Glenn Hart, M Thomas, Chris Veal, Bruce Firth, P Townsend, S Morgan | CSIRO Energy Technology

The preferred filtration device for flotation concentrates in most Australian plants is currently the horizontal vacuum belt filter. This machine has many advantages such as high reliability, low maintenance, ease of control, high solids capture and able to accommodate rapid changes in feed ....  read more


Improving Operation and Control of Centrifugal Dewatering Using a Novel Online Tool

Get Report
Author: Hangil Park, Changzhi Bai and Liguang Wang | The University of Queensland

Centrifugal dewatering is one of the main processes used for fine and ultrafine coal dewatering, but its efficiency is heavily impacted by variations in the feed stream, including flow rate, particle size distribution and solids content. It is essential to continuously monitor the feed and ....  read more


Improving Solids Recovery and Moisture Reduction in Ultrafine Coal Dewatering

Get Report
Author: Changzhi Bai, Hangil Park, Liguang Wang | University of Queensland

This report provides detailed information on fine coal dewatering in the screen bowl centrifuge (SBC). SBCs are used in some coal preparation plants in Australia to dewater the flotation concentrate, and the process often faces the problem of low solids recovery (e.g., 70%). This represents a ....  read more


Improving the Control of Product Coal Moisture Based on Unsaturated Soil Mechanics Principles

Get Report
Author: David Williams, Stuart Whitton | University of Queensland, Mechanical Advantage

ACARP Project C15061 addressed a Research Priority of improved recovery by reducing product coal moisture.  This was achieved through applying unsaturated soil mechanics principles to better understand the water storage capacity, dewatering and re-wetting of product coal, during ....  read more


Improving the Dewatering Efficiency of Fine Flotation Concentrates by De-aerating Froth Products

Get Report
Author: Xumeng Chen and Yongjun Peng | The University of Queensland

The presence of overly stable froths in fine coal flotation products is becoming a common phenomenon in Australian coal preparation plants due to the increasing amount of fine coals which need to be processed and the widespread use of high salinity process water. The overly stable froth causes ....  read more


Improving the Flocculation and Filtration of Fine Coal

Get Report
Author: David Condie, Chris Veal | CSIRO Energy Technology

The objective was to assess the effectiveness of the techniques being used in plants for conditioning of filter feed with flocculant, and establish whether improvements in conditioning could lead to improved filter performance. The criterion of success adopted in this project for good ....  read more


Integrated Dewatering and Size Enlargement - Stage 2

Get Report
Author: D Condie, Chris Veal | CSIRO Energy Technology

This report summarises the results of a two stage study aimed at demonstrating the use of heavy fuel oil emulsions as a dewatering aid to reduce the moisture content of fine coal products from vacuum filters. Stage 1 of this project had previously indicated that moisture reductions up to ....  read more


Integrated Investigation of Solid Capture and Moisture Reduction of Clay Tailings

Get Report
Author: Cuong Nguyen, Van Nguyen, Andrew Doi, Majid Ejtemaei and Anh Nguyen | University of Queensland

Dewatering of fine coal tailings is a big challenge to the coal industry. These dewatering and handling problems are caused by the complex surface properties and gelation due to the swelling characteristics of smectite-type clays, which can result in high yield stress, high dosages of ....  read more


Investigation of Moisture Reduction Methods for Horizontal Belt Filters with the Single Leaf Filter Test

Get Report
Author: Florent Bourgeois, Tofazzel Hague, Chris Clarkson | University of Queensland, C Clarkson & Associates

This project builds on earlier work, that concluded that controlling cake microstructure was a potential means of reducing equilibrium cake moisture. This result led to the hypothesis that by modifying cake microstructure during the drying phase of the filtration cycle, cake moisture ....  read more


Novel Basket Design for Fine Coal Centrifuges

Get Report
Author: M Thomas, Chris Veal | CSIRO Energy Technology

The preferred filtration device for flotation concentrates in most Australian plants is currently the horizontal vacuum belt filter. This machine has many advantages such as high reliability, low maintenance, ease of control, high solids capture and able to accommodate rapid changes in feed ....  read more


Novel Basket Design for Fine Coal Centrifuges

Get Report
Author: M Thomas, Chris Veal | CSIRO Energy Technology

Please refer to ....  read more


Novel Characterisation of Coal Petrography for Improving the Dewatering of Fine Coals Using Chemicals

Get Report
Author: Majid Ejtemaei, Jianlong Wang, Anh Nguyen, Priyanthi Hapugoda and Graham O’Brien | The University of Queensland and CSIRO

This project aimed to develop alternatives to existing mechanical dewatering technology, improve water quality and usage, and encourage further projects in these dewatering areas.  Typically, concentrates of coal flotation are dewatered to provide fine coal products of approximately 20 ....  read more


Optimising the Performance of Tailings Dewatering in a Solid Bowl Centrifuges

Get Report
Author: Rohan Stanger, Andrew Stanger, Quang Anh Tran, Wei Xie, Michael Stockenhuber, Eric Kennedy, John Lucas, Terry Wall | University of Newcastle

This tailings dewatering study was undertaken to provide a link between the fundamental tailings properties and observable bulk characteristics produced by a solid bowl centrifuge. Samples were taken from both a commercial and pilot scale unit operated at separate mine sites. This afforded the ....  read more


Product Moisture After Centrifuging Coarse Coal

Get Report
Author: Bruce Firth, T White, B Stanmore | CSIRO Energy Technology, University of Queensland

High moisture content in export coals increases transport and handling costs and invokes contract penalties. Considerable effort has been focussed on fine coal dewatering, but significant variation in the moisture content of the coarse product is also important.  Very little work has been ....  read more


Product Moisture After Centrifuging Coarse Coal - Stage 2 and Development & Demonstration of Standard Test

Get Report
Author: Bruce Firth, Ted White, Brian Stanmore, Andrew Hoskin, Mike O'Brien, Shenggen Hu | CSIRO Energy Technology, University of Queensland

High moisture contents in export coals increase transport and handling costs and invoke contract penalties. Considerable efforts have been focussed on fine coal dewatering, but relatively little research has been done on ....  read more


Residual Moisture Reduction Through The Development Of An Air Purge Centrifuge Stage 1 Bench-Scale Feasibility Study

Get Report
Author: BK Johnston, CJ Veal, SK Nicol | CSIRO Division of Coal and Energy Technology and Novatech Consulting Pty Ltd

This was the first in a series of projects in which the overall objective was to reduce the limiting residual moisture of centrifuge products by 1 wt% absolute basis (or 20 wt% on a relative basis) by injecting a turbulent flow of air or steam through the particulate bed inside the centrifuge. ....  read more


Residual Moisture Reduction through the Development of an Air Purged Centrifuge

Get Report
Author: BK Johnston, Chris Veal, Stuart Nicol | CSIRO Energy Technology, Novatech Consulting

Australian coal production is approximately 200Mt per annum. Most of this coal is cleaned using wet beneficiation techniques and as a consequence the overall product consignment contains entrained moisture. This entrained moisture, which normally is around 8-9wt%, presents the market with ....  read more


Residual Moisture Reduction through the Development of an Air-Purged Chute: Vol 1 - Commercial Scale

Get Report
Author: D Condie, BK Johnston, N Bramall, Glenn Hart, S Morgan, Chris Veal, Stuart Nicol | CSIRO Energy Technology, Novatech Consulting

Volume 1: Air-Purged Centrifuge: Air purging is a novel process that involves the injection of a turbulent stream of compressed air through a bed of coarse coal particles physically displacing adherent water and delivering lower-moisture products. The concept has previously been ....  read more


Review of ACARP Dewatering Projects

Get Report
Author: Chris Wood | Partition Enterprises

This report presents a review of the 26 past and current coal dewatering research projects funded by NERDDC and ACARP. It was commissioned by ACARP to:

  • summarise the practical outcomes
  • highlight any further potential outcomes that could be realised for a relatively
 ....  read more


Shear Coagulation of Fine Coal to Improve Moisture Control

Get Report
Author: Graeme Jameson, Bruce Atkinson, K Dahl | University of Newcastle

The aim of the project which began in early 1994, was to investigate the shear coagulation/shear flocculation of fine coal, and its effects on the filtration rate and final moisture content of de-watered coal product.  In the past, it has been difficult to float the coal in the ultrafine ....  read more


Significant Reduction In Filter Cake Moisture With Vacuum Filtration

Get Report
Author: Andrew Vince, Dr Götz Bickert, Karin Meyer, Heike Sigloch, Markus Gärtner and Rob Sedmak | Elsa Consulting Group, Department of Chemical Engineering University of NSW, Dendrobium Coal Preparation Plant BHP Billiton Illawarra Collieries

This project has considered three important concepts that were shown to offer industrial potential to reduce the moisture content of horizontal vacuum belt filer cakes.


Initial bench scale testing indicated that the use of surface hydrophobicity modifying chemicals caused ....  read more


Single Leaf Filtration Test (SLFT) Apparatus

Get Report
Author: Florent Bourgeois, M Haque | University of Queensland

To date, there has been n o Australian Standard test for conducting vacuum filtration tests of mineral and coal fines' slurries.

A previous project developed a versatile prototype leaf test apparatus for conducting vacuum filtration tests with fine coal slurries. This novel technology ....  read more


Surface Alloying of Centrifuge Baskets and Sieve Bends Screen Surfaces to Increase the Service Lifetime

Get Report
Author: Teresa Kittel, Con Filippou, Alejandro Vargas Uscategui, Andrew Taylor, Michael O’Brien, Nazmul Alam | CSIRO

The main objective of this project was to improve the wear resistance properties of coal dewatering centrifuge baskets through investigation into alternative coatings applied to the 304 stainless steel wedge wire. Adding a thin coating (~300μm) to the surface of the wedge wire does not ....  read more


Tailings Dewatering Technologies for Australian Coal Processing Plants

Get Report
Author: Götz Bickert | University of New South Wales

The objective of the study was to undertake a review of tailings dewatering technologies currently used in Australia and Overseas and technologies with the potential to improve tailings dewatering either from a quality (moisture and handleability) or commercial ....  read more


Thickener Underflow Monitor

Get Report
Author: Noel Lambert | Clean Process Technologies

The aim of this project was to develop an instrument that is capable of accurately and reliably measuring the quality of the thickener underflow in an operating coal preparation plant environment.


Overall the values obtained for viscosity, particle density, slurry density ....  read more



Health and safety, productivity and environment initiatives.

Recently Completed Projects

C34019Longwall Bretby Cable Handling Monitoring With Fibre Optics

This project examined the potential of using fibre optic sensing tec...

C28028The Inclusion Of High Interest Native Plants In Mine Site Restoration Programs: Propagation, Translocation And Field Re-Introduction

This report synthesises over 10 years of ex situ and in si...

C27049Mine Machine Radar Sensor Integration

The aim of this project was to develop an integrated radar sensor an...


Open Cut

Safety, productivity and the right to operate are priorities for open cut mine research.

Recently Completed Projects

C34029Validation Of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) As A Rapidly Deployable Field Technology To Estimate Coal Quality

Rapid evaluation of a coal resource by in-situ characterisation dow...

C34028Guidelines For Assessment Of Geotechnically Safe And Stable Post-Mining Landforms

The purpose of this project was to develop a guidelines document as ...

C34016Elements In Coal – A Start-To-End Analysis

This project explores the fate and concentration potential of critical e...

Open Cut

Coal Preparation

Maximising throughput and yield while minimising costs and emissions.

Recently Completed Projects

C26016Determining The Benefits Of Online Thickener Underflow Rheology Measurements

The aim of this project is to determine how useful the rheology meas...

C33056Modelling And Control Of Classifying Cyclones

Hydrocyclones are one of the key technologies for the classification...

C28056Surface Alloying Of Centrifuge Baskets And Sieve Bends Screen Surfaces To Increase The Service Lifetime

The main objective of this project was to improve the wear resistanc...

Coal Preparation

Technical Market Support

Market acceptance and emphasising the advantages of Australian coals.

Recently Completed Projects

C33066Washability And Distribution Of Sulfur And Trace Elements For Different Size And Density Fractions Of Raw Coals

Based on the hypothesis that the levels of sulfur and other toxic tr...

C34060In-Situ Investigation Of Coke Structure Formation Under Stamp Charged Coking Conditions

Stamp charged cokemaking has emerged as an effective technique to im...

C34062Improving The Classification Of Microstructure Distribution In Coke CT Images Using Deep Learning And Lineal Path Calculations

This project builds on a number of earlier projects that have helped...

Technical Market Support

Mine Site Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from the production of coal.

Recently Completed Projects

C28076Selective Absorption Of Methane By Ionic Liquids (SAMIL)

This third and final stage of this project was the culmination of a ...

C29069Low-Cost Catalyst Materials For Effective VAM Catalytic Oxidation

Application of ventilation air methane (VAM) thermal oxidiser requir...

C23052Novel Stone Dust Looping Process For Ventilation Air Methane Abatement

This multi‐phase project is concerned with the mitigation of m...

Mine Site Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

Low Emission Coal Use

Step-change technologies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Recently Completed Projects

C17060BGasification Of Australian Coals

Four Australian coals were trialled in the Siemens 5 MWth pilot scale ga...

C17060AOxyfuel Technology For Carbon Capture And Storage Critical Clean Coal Technology - Interim Support

The status of oxy-fuel technology for first-generation plant is indicate...

C18007Review Of Underground Coal Gasification

This report consists of a broad review of underground coal gasification,...

Low Emission Coal Use

Mining And The Community

The relationship between mines and the local community.

Recently Completed Projects

C16027Assessing Housing And Labour Market Impacts Of Mining Developments In Bowen Basin Communities

The focus of this ACARP-funded project has been to identify a number...

C22029Understanding And Managing Cumulative Impacts Of Coal Mining And Other Land Uses In Regions With Diversified Economies

The coal industry operates in the context of competing land-uses that sh...

C23016Approval And Planning Assessment Of Black Coal Mines In NSW And Qld: A Review Of Economic Assessment Techniques

This reports on issues surrounding economic assessment and analysis ...

Mining And The Community


National Energy Research,Development & Demonstration Council (NERDDC) reports - pre 1992.

Recently Completed Projects

1609-C1609Self Heating of Spoil Piles from Open Cut Coal Mines

Self Heating of Spoil Piles from Open Cut Coal Mines

1301-C1301Stress Control Methods for Optimised Development...

Stress Control Methods for Optimised Development and Extraction Operations

0033-C1356Commissioned Report: Australian Thermal Coals...

Commissioned Report: Australian Thermal Coals - An Industry Handbook