Coal Preparation                                  reports

Coal Preparation

Maintenance, improved recovery and plant capacity are our key coal preparation strategies. Work is focused on maximising yield, reducing production costs, minimising emissions, reducing water consumption and the use of lower quality water without adversely impacting on process efficiency.

Process Control (40 Reports)

Commissioned Study on Process Control and Instrumentation in Coal Preparation

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Author: Chris J Clarkson, M Gunn, D Wiseman, Chric Wood | JK Tech

The JKTech study group surveyed personnel from coal preparation plants, equipment suppliers, consultants and coal industry policy makers. The survey found that the industry requirement for process control techniques was varied. and related to the level of sophistication, style of operation and ....  read more


Assess Status and Potential Improvements To Accuracy of On-Line Gauges

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Author: Darren Edward, Chris Clarkson | C Clarkson and Associates

An ACARP commissioned study into process control in coal preparation plants in 1993 suggested that there exists widespread dissatisfaction within the Australian industry that such ....  read more


Control of Hydraulic Distributors to Minimise Feed Bias to Plant Modules

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Author: Peter Holtham, Richard Kelly | JKMRC, University of Queensland

It has been recognised for many years that the performance of 'sputnik' type hydraulic raw coal distributors is extremely poor. A number of modifications have been made to the ....  read more


Assessment of the Impact of Coal Variability on Plant Operations and Design

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Author: Andrew Swanson, Robert Drummond, Kevin Galvin, Peter Mullins | Quality Coal Consulting, University of Newcastle, CSIRO Energy Technology

When designing and operating coal preparation plants, it is essential to take into account potential variation in coal quality. Plant operations are also adversely affected by internal distribution biases. This ACARP funded project has studied these factors by making use of Monte Carlo ....  read more


Adsorption Tracer Technology

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Author: Stuart Nicol, Alan N Buckley | Novatech, CSIRO Energy Technology

The primary objective of this project was to develop an instrumentally based tracer detection system which would result in a cost effective on-line method for the measurement of separator efficiency in coal cleaning circuits.

The method would be based ....  read more


Use of Vibration Signals Recorded from DSP Sensor Technology for On-Line Monitoring of Feed Distribution in a Coal Preparation Plant

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Author: Boulem Boashash, David Hornsby | Queensland University of Technology, ACIRL

This report establishes the goal of proof of concept of using vibration monitoring and signal analysis techniques to detect feed distribution bias or imbalance between parallel dense medium cyclones in coal preparation plants. In the project, a special purpose DSP data acquisition  ....  read more


On-Conveyor Belt Analysis of Coal

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Author: Brian Sowerby, Cheryl Lim, DA Abernethy, Y Liu, PA Maguire, NG Cutmore, TG Evans, J Ashbury, M Edwards, P Storer | CSIRO Minerals, Mineral Control Instrumentation

A laboratory feasibility study has been carried out on new and advanced neutron and gamma-ray analysis systems for the direct on-conveyor belt analysis of ash in coal without the need for sample by-lines. Such an analysis system could deliver the combined advantages of a direct ....  read more


Slurry Subdivision

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Author: Shenggen Hu, Bruce Firth | CSIRO Energy Technology

Large-scale coal preparation plants require the subdivision of solid/liquid slurries at a number of stages. The unit operations are characterised by preferred feedrates of slurry, solids concentration and particle size distributions for optimal efficiencies. The ideal feed subdivision  ....  read more


Process Instrumentation in Coal Preparation Commissioned Study

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Author: Chris Wood | JKTech

The Australian Coal Association Research Program commissioned JKTech to conduct a review of common instruments in Australian coal preparation plants. The objective was to provide information to assist ACARP in directing R&D funds to areas most likely to ....  read more


Improved Process Control in Coal Preparation

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Author: Peter Holtham | JKMRC, University of Queensland

The objective of this project was to develop and evaluate new control algorithms more appropriate to the needs of coal preparation plants than existing PI(D) algorithms.

Whiten's Form Generating Controller (FGC) which automates the techniques used in manual control was chosen for ....  read more


On-Line Moisture Analysis

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Author: Nick Cutmore, DG Miljak, TG Rowlands, D Crnokrak, AJ McEwan, RJ Stevens | CSIRO Minerals

A prototype low frequency microwave analyser has been developed to more accurately monitor thick beds of high moisture coal, using low-cost antennas.

The measurement of the moisture content of materials is currently carried out by manual or automatic sampling of product, followed by ....  read more


On-Conveyor Belt Analysis of Coal

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Author: Cheryl Lim, David Abernethy, S Rainey, LK Noack | CSIRO Minerals

The present report describes the design and plant-testing of a prototype commercial on-belt ash analyser at the Bengalla CHPP (Muswellbrook, NSW). This analyser uses the Neutron Inelastic Scatter (NIS) and Thermal Neutron Capture (TNC) Analysis (NITA) technique, which has been ....  read more


Density/Percent Solids Gauge for Slurries

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Author: Allen Hundley | Offshore Scientific

Offshore Scientific P/L has completed a preliminary study of an acoustic based percent solids / density gauge to be used in coal preparation circuit pipes. This low cost scoping study forms a basis for possible future development of a density gauge that would be low cost, and an alternative to ....  read more


EIS for Monitoring DM Processes Stages 1 and 2

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Author: Shenggen Hu, Bruce Firth | CSIRO Energy Technology


The objective of this project is to develop an effective and inexpensive Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) based technique for on-line monitoring of the operation of DMCs in order to improve timely detection of poor operating conditions and reduce coal ....  read more


Froth Vision for Conventional and Jameson Cells

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Author: Peter Holtham | JKMRC, University of Qld

This project was designed to build on project C6043, which developed a prototype on-line image analysis instrument to measure coal flotation frothparameters on Microcels at Peak Downs CPP.

The project had four objectives:

  1. To determine the most effective means of using the
 ....  read more


A New Flowrate Measuring Technique for On-Line Monitoring of Coal Washing Processes (Stage 1) and Cross Correlation Flowmeter Plant Trial (Stage 2)

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Author: Michael O'Brien, Shenggen Hu, Ian Hutchinson | CSIRO Energy Technology

This project has developed and field tested a simple, robust flow rate measuring technique based on signal cross-correlation. It was conducted in two stages. The first, for which a report was published in October 2002, conducted a proof of concept investigation at pilot scale over a wide ....  read more


Coal Preparation Instrumentation Review

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Author: Terry Bryden, Mike Baldry | Honeywell

This report covers two main areas, firstly technical advances in process instrumentation used in coal preparation and secondly, equipment health monitoring systems applicable to coal preparation plant equipment.

In recent years, automation technology has migrated ....  read more


Sensor & Network Technology

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Author: Elliot Duff, Barry Jenkins | CSIRO ICT Centre

This scoping study was undertaken to assess various new sensor and network technologies now available for integrated plant systems. It involved a literature review and an investigation of the nature and performance of several combinations of modern sensor and network ....  read more


Autonomous Monitoring and Test Station

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Author: Barry Jenkins, Elliott Duff, Peter Holtham | Jenkins-Kwan Technology

The main aim of the project was to develop and test a low-cost system for monitoring of coal preparation plant systems and processes in troubleshooting or investigative applications. The system (or tool) is autonomous, can be interfaced with a wide variety of probes, sensors and ....  read more


Frother Development for Coal Flotation

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Author: Graeme Jameson, NH Willis | University of Newcastle, TUNRA

This study is concerned with finding a new technique for the determination of a frother's effectiveness in the flotation of coal. A small bench top unit was investigated in an attempt to minimise labour, capital and time costs associated with testing frother effectiveness.

A ....  read more


Development of an Online Ash Slurry Analyser

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Author: Noel Lambert | TUNRA

This report describes a new type of online slurry ash analyser. The device calculates the density of particles in a slurry and makes use of the relationship between particle density and ash content. Particle density is measured by using a commercial online slurry density unit (Micro ....  read more


Improved Ultrasonic Flow Measurements of Coal Slurries

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Author: Stephen Sullivan, Andrew Meyers, Bob Leach, Michael O'Brien | A&B Mylec, CSIRO Energy Technology

The measurement of volume flows, using portable ultrasonic flow meters, has been a major tool used in the data collection phase during plant audits in the coal industry. The accuracy of these ultrasonic flow measurements have been inconsistent due to various influences, generally related ....  read more


The Intelligent Plant

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Author: Bruce Firth | CSIRO Energy Technology

The current advances in electronics and smart sensors, coupled with the large amount of information that modern distributed control systems can create, provide opportunities but posses some significant problems.

The potential suite of data measurements could provide plant operators, ....  read more


Process and Condition Monitoring of Dense Medium Cyclones by Acoustic Emissions

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Author: Steven Spencer, Y Lui, V Sharp | CSIRO Minerals

A proof-of-concept robust, low-cost, non-intrusive contact Acoustic Emission (AE) monitoring and soft-sensor analysis system has been developed for monitoring of coal washery Dense Medium Cyclone (DMC) process state and machine condition. AE sensors are mounted on the external shell of an ....  read more


Frother Measurement and Control

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Author: Glenn Hart, M Attalla, P Morgan | CSIRO

A significant issue within coal washeries is that of over frothing; such problems can occur with pumps, sumps and thickeners when the level of frother in the process water rises too high. The industry has long needed the means to monitor frother levels within the plant water in order to ....  read more


On-Line Monitoring and Control of DMC Separation Density and Efficiency

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Author: Shenggen Hu, Bruce Firth | CSIRO Enerty Technology

Separation density (RD50) and efficiency (Ep) are two important performance parameters of  dense medium cyclones (DMCs). These two parameters are not directly measured but calculated from particle density partition curves. Currently partition curves for DMCs are ....  read more


Detection of Adverse Operating Conditions in Dense Medium Cyclones by Acoustic Emission Monitoring

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Author: Steven Spencer, Y Lui, R Bruniges | CSIRO Minerals

A proof-of-concept non-intrusive contact Acoustic Emission (AE) monitoring and soft-sensor analysis system has been developed and tested for passive monitoring of adverse operating conditions in coal washery Dense Medium Cyclones (DMCs). AE sensors externally mounted at feed, mid-body, ....  read more


Acoustic Emission Soft-Sensor Alarm System for Dense Medium Cyclones

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Author: Steven Spencer, R Bruniges, A Williams, V Sharp, S Rainey, G Roberts, R Stevens, M Millen | CSIRO Minerals

A commercial prototype Acoustic Emission (AE) analyser has been developed for monitoring performance of washery Dense Medium Cyclones (DMCs), in particular the detection of adverse DMC operating conditions.   The analyser consists of an electronics module and multiple accelerometer ....  read more


Sampling From High Capacity Screens

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Author: Bruce Atkinson | CPG Resources - QCC Pty Ltd

Sampling from the discharge of high capacity vibrating screens, especially multi-slope screens, is subject to sampling bias, due to the stratification that occurs on the vibrating screen deck. The stratification in the vibrating bed translates to a stratified falling stream at the discharge ....  read more


Evaluation Of Ultra-Dynamics Non-Nuclear Density Gauges

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Author: Peter Purdon, Laurie Gibson | ALS Coal Technology NSW

The objective was to directly determine the measuring efficiency of a pilot Ultra-Dynamics density gauge. Direct comparisons were obtained by installing the non-nuclear gauge immediately after a standard nuclear gauge within the ACIRL Pilot Plant. That provides a direct comparison of the ....  read more


Measuring the Plant Performance of Modern Coal Spiral Banks

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Author: Peter Holtham | Julius Kruttschnitt Mineral Research Centre, The University of Queensland

The objective of ACARP project C19046 was to provide the Australian coal industry with reliable supplier-independent, size-by-size data describing the performance of modern spirals under a range of operating conditions. Data was to be generated for individual spiral starts as well as for the ....  read more


Gravity Concentrator Expert Control System

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Author: Bob Drummond | QCC Resources

Currently there are over approximately 30 gravity concentrators comprising both the Advanced Separation Engineering TBS design and the FLSmidth, Reflux Classifier design installed and operating in Australian CPP's treating raw coal plant fines.

It is well established that both the ....  read more


On-line Estimation Of Plant Feed Washability

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Author: Shenggen Hu, Michael O’Brien and Bruce Firth | CSIRO

Plant feed washability determines the yield achievable for given product ash levels after cleaning. Plant feed washability can vary with time due to variations in feed coal characteristics as coal is sourced from different seams, different locations within a seam, and due to out of seam ....  read more


Centrifugal Dewatering Properties of Australian Coals

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Author: Michael O’Brien, Andrew Taylor | CSIRO

Coal contains water which can be defined in various ways, the most common of which are the laboratory determined moisture characteristics of moisture in the analysed sample, air dried/free moisture and equilibrium moisture.  None adequately describe the water that can be removed from ....  read more


Advanced Control and Optimisation of DMC Operation

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Author: Shenggen Hu | CSIRO

The objective of this project was to develop, implement and demonstrate a system that determines the optimal DMC cut‐point at which a target product ash and/or a given incremental ash can be achieved. The operation of dense medium cyclone (DMC) at the optimal cut‐point would reduce ....  read more


Effect of Flotation Water Chemistry on Coal Chemistry, Fluidity and Coke Quality

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Author: Ghislain Bournival, Feng Zhang Noel Lambert, Sushil Gupta, Pramod Koshy and Seher Ata | The University of New South Wales

In an effort to minimise fresh water use, a number of Australian coal preparation plants use underground water or recycled water. The use of alternative water sources in coal preparation, especially in flotation, has significant effects on flotation and coke characteristics since these water ....  read more


Effect of Flotation Water Chemistry on Coal Chemistry, Fluidity and Coke Quality

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Author: Feng Zhang, Ghislain Bournival, Seher Ata & Noel Lambert | University of New South Wales & Clean Process Technologies

In an effort to minimise fresh water use, coal preparation plants use recycled water. The water lost during recycling is obtained from various sources such as underground and surface water. The use of alternative water sources in coal preparation has significant effects on flotation and coke ....  read more


Novel Processing to Reduce Cost of Generating Dry Stackable Tailings

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Author: Daniel Borrow, Joshua Starrett, Yiyi Liu, Bo Fan, Kaiyuan Qin, San Thang, Kevin Galvin | University of Newcastle

The overall goal of this project was to apply novel polymers to produce dry stackable tailings in the coal industry. Despite an exhaustive investigation, it was not possible to produce the necessary polymer addition regime needed to achieve the goal of a dry stackable tailing. This report ....  read more


Smart Conveyor Belts for Structural Health Monitoring and Weigh-In-Motion

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Author: Phil Aitchison | Imagine Intelligent Materials

Imagine Intelligent Materials (“Imagine”) has developed and tested graphene-based sensing surfaces on conveyor belts to allow real-time monitoring of the structural health of the belt, the strain it is under, damage to the belt and the weight on the belt.  Imagine These ....  read more


Using EIS Technology to Measure the Amount of Magnetite in Dilute Magnetite Streams

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Author: Clint McNally, Ian Hutchinson and Shane Reinhard | CSIRO

This project focused on developing a real time measurement system for quantitatively assessing the concentration of dilute magnetite (less than 1g/L) in a magnetic separator slurry overflow.

The current method of qualitative assessment consists of using a magnetic wand and visual ....  read more



Health and safety, productivity and environment initiatives.

Recently Completed Projects

C34019Longwall Bretby Cable Handling Monitoring With Fibre Optics

This project examined the potential of using fibre optic sensing tec...

C28028The Inclusion Of High Interest Native Plants In Mine Site Restoration Programs: Propagation, Translocation And Field Re-Introduction

This report synthesises over 10 years of ex situ and in si...

C27049Mine Machine Radar Sensor Integration

The aim of this project was to develop an integrated radar sensor an...


Open Cut

Safety, productivity and the right to operate are priorities for open cut mine research.

Recently Completed Projects

C34029Validation Of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) As A Rapidly Deployable Field Technology To Estimate Coal Quality

Rapid evaluation of a coal resource by in-situ characterisation dow...

C34028Guidelines For Assessment Of Geotechnically Safe And Stable Post-Mining Landforms

The purpose of this project was to develop a guidelines document as ...

C34016Elements In Coal – A Start-To-End Analysis

This project explores the fate and concentration potential of critical e...

Open Cut

Coal Preparation

Maximising throughput and yield while minimising costs and emissions.

Recently Completed Projects

C26016Determining The Benefits Of Online Thickener Underflow Rheology Measurements

The aim of this project is to determine how useful the rheology meas...

C33056Modelling And Control Of Classifying Cyclones

Hydrocyclones are one of the key technologies for the classification...

C28056Surface Alloying Of Centrifuge Baskets And Sieve Bends Screen Surfaces To Increase The Service Lifetime

The main objective of this project was to improve the wear resistanc...

Coal Preparation

Technical Market Support

Market acceptance and emphasising the advantages of Australian coals.

Recently Completed Projects

C33066Washability And Distribution Of Sulfur And Trace Elements For Different Size And Density Fractions Of Raw Coals

Based on the hypothesis that the levels of sulfur and other toxic tr...

C34060In-Situ Investigation Of Coke Structure Formation Under Stamp Charged Coking Conditions

Stamp charged cokemaking has emerged as an effective technique to im...

C34062Improving The Classification Of Microstructure Distribution In Coke CT Images Using Deep Learning And Lineal Path Calculations

This project builds on a number of earlier projects that have helped...

Technical Market Support

Mine Site Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from the production of coal.

Recently Completed Projects

C28076Selective Absorption Of Methane By Ionic Liquids (SAMIL)

This third and final stage of this project was the culmination of a ...

C29069Low-Cost Catalyst Materials For Effective VAM Catalytic Oxidation

Application of ventilation air methane (VAM) thermal oxidiser requir...

C23052Novel Stone Dust Looping Process For Ventilation Air Methane Abatement

This multi‐phase project is concerned with the mitigation of m...

Mine Site Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

Low Emission Coal Use

Step-change technologies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Recently Completed Projects

C17060BGasification Of Australian Coals

Four Australian coals were trialled in the Siemens 5 MWth pilot scale ga...

C17060AOxyfuel Technology For Carbon Capture And Storage Critical Clean Coal Technology - Interim Support

The status of oxy-fuel technology for first-generation plant is indicate...

C18007Review Of Underground Coal Gasification

This report consists of a broad review of underground coal gasification,...

Low Emission Coal Use

Mining And The Community

The relationship between mines and the local community.

Recently Completed Projects

C16027Assessing Housing And Labour Market Impacts Of Mining Developments In Bowen Basin Communities

The focus of this ACARP-funded project has been to identify a number...

C22029Understanding And Managing Cumulative Impacts Of Coal Mining And Other Land Uses In Regions With Diversified Economies

The coal industry operates in the context of competing land-uses that sh...

C23016Approval And Planning Assessment Of Black Coal Mines In NSW And Qld: A Review Of Economic Assessment Techniques

This reports on issues surrounding economic assessment and analysis ...

Mining And The Community


National Energy Research,Development & Demonstration Council (NERDDC) reports - pre 1992.

Recently Completed Projects

1609-C1609Self Heating of Spoil Piles from Open Cut Coal Mines

Self Heating of Spoil Piles from Open Cut Coal Mines

1301-C1301Stress Control Methods for Optimised Development...

Stress Control Methods for Optimised Development and Extraction Operations

0033-C1356Commissioned Report: Australian Thermal Coals...

Commissioned Report: Australian Thermal Coals - An Industry Handbook